Eastern Pine Trees
Indigenous and Introduced
Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda)
Pond Pine (Pinus rigida subsp. serotina)
Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida subsp. rigida)
Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata)
Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)
Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana)
Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens)
Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii)
Red Pine (Pinus resinosa)
Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)
Austrian (Black) Pine (Pinus nigra)
Scots (Scotch) Pine (Pinus sylvestris)
Loblolly Pine
Loblolly Pine
Loblolly Pine
Loblolly Pine
ID tips: common south of NJ, long needles, large cones.
Latin: taeda  means "torch"
English:
Loblolly means low, wet place, depression
Needles:
(3), 5"-9" [12-25cm] slender, somewhat twisted, fragrent when crushed, do not snap when bent
Cones: 3"-5" [6-15cm] almost stalkless, many pointing downward,  sharp prickle points downward on cone, opens at maturity, old cones remain several years
Male cones: green-yellow

Bark: deeply furrowed, thick plates, grayish-black when young, more orange at maturity.
Trunk: 80-100' [35m, up to 55m] 1.5m DBH, mostly straight, dead branches fall off
General: wider heavier crown than all other southern pines, rounded to flat-topped crown, most common southern pine
Similar species: Pond Pine has smaller cones. Slash Pine and Longleaf Pine both have longer, drooping needles and larger cones.
Pond Pine
Pone Pine
Pond Pine
Pond Pine
ID tips: long needles & small cones, occasionally 4-5 needles, crooked branches, large trunk sprouts
Latin: serotina  means "late" as in delayed opening of cone
English:
 aka Pocosin (Pine) means lowland, wetland, bog, pond, or swamp on a hill,
Needles:
(3-5) 4"-8" [10-20cm] usually 3 per bundle but 4-5 possible, sharp, twisted, shiny, flexible, unscented
Cones: 2"-2.5" [4-6cm] persistant, remaining unopened for years, small or no prickle, little or no stalk, fire stimulates cone to open
Male cones: pale yellow-brown
Bark: gray-black or reddish brown, furrowed into scaly plates
Trunk: 40'-80' [25m] 0.8m DBH, often leaning, dead branches fall off, trunk sprouts more developed than pitch pine
General: usually below 650 feet elev., crown seems tangled with crooked branches, new branches will grow from base of tree after damage
Similar species: ssp of Pitch Pine, Pitch Pine has smaller trunk sprouts and found at higher elevation or further north, Loblolly has larger cones
Pitch Pine
Pitch Pine
Pitch Pine
Pitch Pine
Shortleaf Pine
Shortleaf Pine
Shortleaf
Shortleaf Pine
Longleaf Pine
Longleaf Pine
Longleaf Pine
Loneleaf Pine
Virginia Pine
Virginia Pine
Virginia Pine
Virginia Pine
Table Mountain Pine
Table Mountain Pine
Table Mountain Pine
Table Mountain Pine
Slash Pine
Slash Pine
Slash Pine
Slash Pine
Red Pine
Red Pine
Red Pine
Red Pine
Eastern White Pine
Eastern White Pine
Eastern White Pine
Eastern White Pine
Austrian Black Pine
Austrian pine
Austrian Black Pine
Austrian Black Pine
Scots Pine, Scotch Pine
Scots Pine, Scotch Pine
Scots Pine, Scotch Pine
Scots Pine, Scotch Pine
ID tips: small trunk sprouts, medium needles & small cones,
Latin: rigida  means "rigid or stiff" as in needles
Needles:
(3) 3"-5", [6-14cm] rarely 2-4 needles, stiff, usually twisted
Cones: 1.25"-2.75", [3-7cm] may persist for years unopened, clusters of 2-3, resin sealed, slender short-lasting prickle
Male cones: pale yellow-brown
Bark: blackish gray or reddish brown, furrowed into scaly plates
Trunk: 30'-75' [25m] 1m DBH, dark gray, rough, may be crooked, small trunk sprouts or tufts
Crown: broad, rounded or irregular, with horizontal limbs
General:
higher elevation in southern range and down to sea level in northern range, horizontal limbs, fire adapted, new branches will grow from base of tree after damage
Similar species: Pond Pine is ssp. of Pitch Pine, ranges overlap and hybridize
ID tips: resin pockets, trunk tall & straight, only needle (eastern pines) <5" not prickley pointed,
Latin: echinata  means "spiny" as in cone scale prickles
English:
Shortleaf has the shortest needles of the four major southern yellow pines
Needles:
(2-3) 2.75"-4.5" [7-13cm], slender, flixible, upward pointing, often on tops of branches
Cones: 1.5"-2.5" [3-7cm], often in clusters, short stalk, releasing seeds at maturity and remaining for years, weak short prickle
Male cones: yellow-green
Bark: flat broad reddish brown plates, ~ rectangular, usually with resin pockets or "moon craters", bark of 3-4 year old twigs is "flaky"
Trunk: 70'-100' [up to 39m] 1.1m DBH, straightest of all southern pines, limb free, may have "root sprouts" at base, rarely trunk sprouts
General: Needles look like tufts on top of branches, narrow to broad thin and open crown
Similar species: mature trunk bark similar to mature Loblolly, 3-4 year old twig bark of P. virginiana P. glabra and P. glausa is similar but not flaky
ID tips: longest needles, largest cones, silver winter bud tips
Latin: palustris means "marshy or swampy", a name better suited for Loblolly Pine or Pond Pine
English:
Longleaf has the longest needles of the four major southern yellow pines
Needles:
(3) 10"-18" [20-45cm], flexible, drooping, spreading, tufts at branch tips, 
Cones: 6"-10" [15-25cm], largest of all eastern pines, almost stalkless, releasing seeds at maturity, small sharp prickle
Male cones: purple
Bark: gray-black, rough overlapping plates, without defined furrows, some orange-brown
Trunk: 60'-100' [to 35m] 1m DBH, tall, straight, high open crown, few branches
General: branches often thick and may curve upward, silvery-white bud tips in winter and spring, seedlings in grassy stage 3-6 years while tap root grows
Similar species: Slash Pine needles droop less, cones and needles slightly shorter
ID tips: common, short needles, small cones, many dead branches remaining on trunk
Latin: virginiana  named for the state of Virginia
Needles:
(2) 1.5"-3" [2-8cm], short, twisted, flattened, stiff, sharp, pairs spread in "V" shape
Cones: 1.5"-2.75" [4-7cm], may grow in clusters, opening at maturity and persisting several years, angled on stalk, sharp prickle
Male cones: yellow-brown
Bark: brownish gray, thin narrow scaly ridges, smoother on small trunks, peeling off in flakes, 3yo twigs do not flake
Trunk: 30'-60' [up to 20m] 70cm DBH, may be tall and straight, or shrub-like, dead limbs and stubs DO NOT fall off.
General: if, in a stand, one falls many may fall leaving an open circle, 
Similar species: Table Mountain Pine usually at higher elev. and larger cone prickles, Scots Pine has little or no cone prickle, P. clausa is a subspecies but ranges do not overlap
ID tips: high rocky elevation, short needles, small cones, unique prickle
Latin: pungens means "piercing or sharp pointed" as in needle
English:
Table Mountain is named for the high, dry, rocky slopes and ridges it growns on
Needles:
(2-3) 1.25"-2.5" [3-8cm], rarely 3 needles, thick, sharp, often twisted, pairs spread out, lemon fragrance
Cones: 2"-3.5" [5-7cm], abundant in clusters of 3-5, pointed toward trunk or downward, partly open at maturity, may remain 20 yrs, thick "claw or rhino horn" prickle
Male cones: reddish purple
Bark: dark brown, thin or thick, rough, furrowed plates, older trees have wide flat "scalloped" plates, thin and orange toward top of tree
Trunk: 20'-40' [up to 20m], crooked, irregular, often growing on rocky cliffs,
Crown: twisted irregular horizontal limbs, often flat-topped, clusters of cones
General: thick twigs do not break, "hickory like" branches, found in Appalachian Mts only
Similar species: Virginia Pine cones have thinner prickles
ID tips: often with orange bark plates, long slightly drooping needles, large cones, purple male cones
Latin: elliottii named after Stephen Elliott (1771-1830) who first described the tree as a variety of Loblolly
English:
Slash may come from the appearance of the orange inner bark like it was cut or slashed
Needles:
(2-3) 7"-10" [17-25cm], often 2+3 on same tree, slightly drooping
Cones: 2.5"-6" [6-15cm], young point forward, mature curve backward toward trunk, short stout prickle, falls 2nd year
Male cones: purple
Bark: gray-black, thick furrowed plates that flake off in thin pieces or "slashs" revealing orange inner bark
Trunk: 60'-100' [to 45m] 1m DBH, tall straight and free of dead branches, small pointed crown
General: natural from FL to SC, planted well into NC and VA becoming naturalized, extreme northern trees often have fewer orange "slashes"
Similar species: Loblolly has shorter cones and needles, Longleaf has longer cones and needles
ID tips: some orange from top to bottom, annual whorls
Latin: resinosa  means "resinous" as in pitch or resin
English:
Red probably originates as the only eastern pine with red tinged bark from the base to the crown
Needles:
(2) 4.5"-6.5" [10-17cm], persists 3-5 years, slender, snap easily when bent
Cones: 1.5"-2.25" [4-6cm], near tip of twig, no prickle, releases seeds at maturity, do not remain on tree
Male cones: purple
Bark: reddish brown and gray, broad flat scaly plates, becoming thicker, red tinge from base to crown
Trunk: 70'-80' [to 25m] 1m DBH, tall straight rounded, dead branches fall off, branches grow in annual whorl, symmetrical oval crown
General: common in northern parks, natural stands south to eastern WV, only eastern pine with red tinged bark  from base to crown, no known hybrids, very small gene pool,
Similar species: Scots pine has smaller needles and cones
ID tips: common in it's range, 5 leafs per bundle, annual whorls, dead branches remain on trunk
Latin: strobus  means "tall-growing"
English:
Eastern White Pine is the only white "soft pine" in the east. All others are yellow "hard pines"
Needles:
(5) 2.5"-5" [6-14cm], slender, blue-green above, whitish below, persisting 3-4 years
Cones: 4"-8" [10-20cm], long and narrow, resinous, sap forming on scales, falls 1st winter or next spring, 1" stalk, no prickle
Male cones: yellow-brown
Bark: gray, smooth becoming rough with thick furrowed plates, some orange tinge, wrinkled rings around each limb
Trunk: 80'-100' formally to 150' [to 60m] 1.8m DBH, dead branches remain on trunk, annual whorls
General: tall straight tree, horizontal spreading branches
Similar species: only white pine in the east, only eastern 5 needled pine except occasional Pond Pine
ID tips: silver-white winter bud usually with resin, annual whorls
Latin: nigra  means "black" as in bark
English:
Austrian Pine is native from western Europe to Asia and named after the country Austria. Also called  Black Pine for the bark color
Needles:
(2) 3.5"-6" [12-20cm], sharp, glossy, straight or curved, possible twist, dark green or dark blue-green
Cones: 2"-3" [5-10cm], opening and releasing seeds at maturity, almost stalkless, tiny prickle, remain for years
Male cones: yellow brown
Bark: dark gray, thin rough and furrowed, into irregular scaly plates, thicker vertical plates with age
Trunk: 50'-60' [to50m] 1m DBH, straight, densely rounded or pyramidal crown
General: introduced, naturalized in N.E. and along mid-Atlantic coast, salt and sulfur dioxide tolerant, may be broader than tall, tends to have annual whorls
Hardiness Zone: USDA Zones 4-7
Similar species:
Japanese Black Pine is very similar. Red Pine has red tinge lacking in Black Pine.
ID tips: orange upper bark on trunk and branches, flaking, slight or no cone prickles
Latin: sylvestris  means "wild, of the woods, of the forest",  silva  means "woods"
English:
Scots Pine is the most widely destributed conifer in the world. The Highlands of Scotland is near the western natural limit and the range continues east to Siberia
Needles:
(2) 1.5"-2.75" [4-7cm], rarely 3 needles, stiff, thick,straight and twisted, spreading
Cones: 1.25"-2.5" [3-6cm], short stalk, slight or no prickles, opening at maturity, seldom remaining long
Male cones: pink or yellow
Bark: bright orange scaly bark on upper trunk and limbs with paper-like flaking, gray-black on lower trunk
Trunk: 50'-70' [to 23m] 1.4m DBH, straight or shrub-like, older trees may fork and lean with crown swept to one side, tends toward annual whorls
General: introduced, naturalized in Eastern USA mostly north of Virginia Pine, wide spread around the world with much variation and a large gene pool
Hardiness Zone: USDA Zones 3-7
Similar species:
Virginia Pine & Table Mt Pine have cone prickles, Red Pine has red tinge from base to crown
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Japanese Black Pine (Pinus thunbergii)
ID tips: silver-white winter buds usually without resin, leaning or crooked trunk
Latin: thunbergii was named after Pehr Thunberg (1743-1825)
English:
Japanese Black Pine, from Japan with black bark
Needles:
(2) 3"-5" (up to 6"+) [9-12cm], stiff, straight, only slightly twisted or curved, dark green
Cones:
1.75"-2.5" [4.5-6cm], opening and releasing seeds at maturity, tiny prickle, may clump 20 or more cones together
Male cones:
yellowish-brown to reddish-yellow, densley crowded
Bark:
dark gray, may have reddish-gray flakes, mature bark with longitudinally narrow fissures
Trunk:
40'-60' [to 35m] 1m DBH, leaning or crooked, irregularly pyramidal
General:
introduced, naturalized in N.E. and along Atlantic coast to FL, salt and sulfur dioxide tolerant, may be broader than tall, in some var. the seed cones replace male cones and are numerous (20 or more)
Hardiness Zone:
USDA Zones 5-9
Similar species:
Austrian Pine is very similar
Japanese Black Pine
Japanese Black Pine
Japanese Black Pine
Japanese Black Pine
Spruce Pine (Pinus glabra)
ID tips: smooth bark on trunk and branches, mature lower trunk will become fissured
Latin: g
labra  means "smooth" as in bark
English:
Spruce Pine remotely resembles a Spruce
Needles:
(2) 1.5"-4" [4-10cm], slender, straight or slightly twisted, dark green
Cones:
1.25"-3" [3-7cm], or more, maturing in 2 yrs, sheading and persisting another year or more
Male cones:
purplish-brown or purplish-tan
Bark:
upper trunk and branches smooth gray, lower mature trunk more fissured
Trunk:
50'-90' [to 30m] 1m DBH, may be straight, more often twisted and bent
General:
The least common of all southern yellow pines. shade tolerant, usually in hardwood areas, not in a stand of its own
Similar species:
Shortleaf Pine bark and needles differ, Table Mountain Pine, Virginia Pine and Sand Pine are all similar but ranges do not overlap
Spruce Pine
Spruce Pine
Spruce Pine
Spruce Pine
Sand Pine (P. clausa, or P. virginiana ssp. clausa)
ID tips: only pine in its range with short needles
Latin:
clausa  means "closed" as in cone
English:
Sand Pine commonly grows in sand and other poor soil
Needles:
(2) 2"-3.5" [3-9cm], slender, slightly twisted, dark green
Cones:
1"-3" [3-8cm], short stout prickle, requires heat to open in central FL population and may persist for years, gulf population releases seeds at maturity
Male cones:
yellow
Bark:
thick grayish or reddish-brown outer bark, brown inner bark, smooth near top and on branches,
Trunk:
20'-80' [to 25m] 50cm DBH, usually under 25' but may grow to 80', often appears twisted
General:
grows on poor sandy soil, often associated with lime, 2 separate populations which differ mostly in seed cone function, both now being considered a variety or subspecies of Virginia Pine
Similar species:
Spruce Pine but ranges do not overlap
Sand Pine
Sand pine
Sand Pine
Sand Pine
Pond Pine Map
Pitch Pine Map
Shortleaf Pine Map
Longleaf Pine Map
Virginia Pine Map
Table Mountain Pine Map
Slash Pine Map
Red Pine Map
Eastern White Pine Map
USDA hardiness zones
USDA hardiness zones
USDA Hardiness Zones
Spruce Pine Map
Sand Pine Map
Washburn Photography